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“Subsequent studies, however, demonstrated extremes of personal brutality in Portuguese and Spanish America enabled by slavery comparable to the worst depictions of slavery in the Protestant English Americas…All of this debate around cultural contrasts imputed to masters took place largely in terms of the conventional stereotype of the slave as male, but the differences at issue implicitly rested more on female slaves than more of the proponents of the approach realized.”

Joseph Miller, “Preface,” in Women and Slavery: The Modern Atlantic, ed. Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph Miller, (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007), xv.

Featured Image Credit: Free Women of Color and Marketing Activities, Brazil, 1816-1831  ,Jean Baptiste Debret, Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil (Paris,1834-39), vol. 2, plate 52, p. 100. (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University) (via Slavery Images; posted at Free Women of Color)